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oracle 闪回详解

发表者:admin分类:数据库DBA2019-09-26 09:38:10 阅读[193]

Oracle 9i 开始支持闪回,Oracle10g开始全面支持闪回功能,Oracle11g有所完善,为大家快速的恢复数据,查询历史数据提供了很大的便捷方法。

本文主要对Oracle常用闪回使用做些详细介绍,其中对于不常用的事务和版本闪回,这里就不做介绍

一、Oracle闪回概述

闪回级别闪回场景闪回技术对象依赖影响数据
数据库表截断、逻辑错误、其他多表意外事件闪回DATABASE闪回日志、undo
DROP删除表闪回DROP回收站(recyclebin)
更新、删除、插入记录闪回TABLE还原数据,undo
查询当前数据和历史数据对比闪回QUERY还原数据,undo
版本查询比较行版本闪回Version Query还原数据,undo
事务查询比较闪回Transaction Query还原数据,undo
归档DDL、DML闪回Archive归档日志
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 二、Oracle闪回使用详解

1、闪回开启
(1)开启闪回必要条件

a.开启归档日志

复制代码
SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination /home/U01/app/oracle/oradata/testdb/arch
Oldest online log sequence 844
Next log sequence to archive 846
Current log sequence 846

##如未开启,在mount状态执行alter database archivelog;
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b.设置合理的闪回区

db_recovery_file_dest:指定闪回恢复区的位置
db_recovery_file_dest_size:指定闪回恢复区的可用空间大小
db_flashback_retention_target:指定数据库可以回退的时间,单位为分钟,默认1440分钟(1天),实际取决于闪回区大小
(2)检查是否开启闪回

SQL> select flashback_on from v$database;
FLASHBACK_ON
------------------
NO

(3)开启闪回

a.开启归档

mount状态:alter database archivelog;

b.设置闪回区

SQL> alter system set db_recovery_file_dest='/home/U01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area' scope=both;
System altered.
SQL> alter system set db_recovery_file_dest_size=60G scope=both;
System altered.
SQL> alter system set db_flashback_retention_target=4320 scope=both;
System altered.    

c.开启flashback (10g在mount开启)

SQL> alter database flashback on;
Database altered.

(4)确定闪回开启

SQL> select flashback_on from v$database;
FLASHBACK_ON
------------------
YES    

(5)关闭闪回

SQL> alter database flashback off;
Database altered.

2、闪回使用

(1)闪回查询
闪回查询主要是根据Undo表空间数据进行多版本查询,针对v$和x$动态性能视图无效,但对DBA_、ALL_、USER_是有效的
a.闪回查询
允许用户查询过去某个时间点的数据,用以重构由于意外删除或更改的数据,数据不会变化。

复制代码
SQL> select * from scott.dept;
DEPTNO DNAME LOC
---------- -------------- -------------
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
SQL> delete from scott.dept where deptno=40;
1 row deleted.
SQL> commit;
Commit complete.
SQL> select * from scott.dept as of timestamp sysdate-10/1440;

DEPTNO DNAME LOC
---------- -------------- -------------
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
SQL> select * from scott.dept as of timestamp to_timestamp('2017-12-14 16:20:00','yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss');

DEPTNO DNAME LOC
---------- -------------- -------------
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON

SQL> select * from scott.dept as of scn 16801523;

DEPTNO DNAME LOC
---------- -------------- -------------
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
复制代码

b.闪回版本查询

用于查询行级数据库随时间变化的方法

c.闪回事务查询
用于提供查看事务级别数据库变化的方法

(2)闪回表(update/insert/delete)
闪回表就是对表的数据做回退,回退到之前的某个时间点,其利用的是undo的历史数据,与undo_retention设置有关,默认是14400分钟(1天)
同样,sys用户表空间不支持闪回表,要想表闪回,需要允许表启动行迁移(row movement)
闪回表示例:

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SQL> flashback table scott.dept to timestamp to_timestamp('2017-12-14 16:20:00','yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss');
flashback table scott.dept to timestamp to_timestamp('2017-12-14 16:20:00','yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss')
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-08189: cannot flashback the table because row movement is not enabled

SQL> select row_movement from dba_tables where table_name='DEPT' and owner='SCOTT';
ROW_MOVE
--------
DISABLED
SQL> alter table scott.dept enable row movement;
Table altered.

SQL> flashback table scott.dept to timestamp to_timestamp('2017-12-14 16:20:00','yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss');
Flashback complete.
SQL> select * from scott.dept;
DEPTNO DNAME LOC
---------- -------------- -------------
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON    
SQL> alter table scott.dept disable row movement;
Table altered.
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(3)闪回DROP(drop table)

当一个表被drop掉,表会被放入recyclebin回收站,可通过回收站做表的闪回。表上的索引、约束等同样会被恢复
不支持sys/system用户表空间对象,可通过alter system set recyclebin=off;关闭回收站功能
闪回DROP示例:

复制代码
SQL> select * from t ;

ID NAME
---------- ---------------------------------------
1
2
3
4
30

SQL> drop table t;

Table dropped.

SQL> show recyclebin;
ORIGINAL NAME RECYCLEBIN NAME OBJECT TYPE DROP TIME
---------------- ------------------------------ ------------ -------------------
T BIN$YEh2QcvZdJLgUxyAgQpnVQ==$0 TABLE 2017-12-14:15:02:06
SQL> flashback table t to before drop;

Flashback complete.

SQL> select * from t;

ID NAME
---------- -------------------------------------
1
2
3
4
30    
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备注:即使不开始flashback,只要开启了recyclebin,那么就可以闪回DROP表。

但如果连续覆盖,就需要指定恢复的表名,如果已经存在表,则需要恢复重命名。

复制代码
SQL> show recyclebin;
ORIGINAL NAME RECYCLEBIN NAME OBJECT TYPE DROP TIME
---------------- ------------------------------ ------------ -------------------
T BIN$YEh2QcvddJLgUxyAgQpnVQ==$0 TABLE 2017-12-14:15:07:54
T BIN$YEh2QcvcdJLgUxyAgQpnVQ==$0 TABLE 2017-12-14:15:07:27
SQL> flashback table "BIN$YEh2QcvcdJLgUxyAgQpnVQ==$0" to before drop ;
Flashback complete.
SQL> show recyclebin;
ORIGINAL NAME RECYCLEBIN NAME OBJECT TYPE DROP TIME
---------------- ------------------------------ ------------ -------------------
T BIN$YEh2QcvddJLgUxyAgQpnVQ==$0 TABLE 2017-12-14:15:07:54
SQL> flashback table t to before drop rename to tt;
Flashback complete.
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(4)闪回数据库(truncate/多表数据变更)

数据库闪回必须在mounted状态下进行,基于快照的可以再open下进行闪回库
闪回数据库主要是将数据库还原值过去的某个时间点或SCN,用于数据库出现逻辑错误时,需要open database resetlogs
a.全库闪回
数据库闪回示例

复制代码
SQL> select * from scott.EMP;

EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO
---------- ---------- --------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
7369 SMITH CLERK 7902 1980-12-17 00:00:00 800 20
7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7698 1981-02-20 00:00:00 1600 300 30
7521 WARD SALESMAN 7698 1981-02-22 00:00:00 1250 500 30
7566 JONES MANAGER 7839 1981-04-02 00:00:00 2975 20
7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 1981-09-28 00:00:00 1250 1400 30
7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7839 1981-05-01 00:00:00 2850 30
7782 CLARK MANAGER 7839 1981-06-09 00:00:00 2450 10
7788 SCOTT ANALYST 7566 1987-04-19 00:00:00 3000 20
7839 KING PRESIDENT 1981-11-17 00:00:00 5000 10
7844 TURNER SALESMAN 7698 1981-09-08 00:00:00 1500 0 30
7876 ADAMS CLERK 7788 1987-05-23 00:00:00 1100 20
7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 1981-12-03 00:00:00 950 30
7902 FORD ANALYST 7566 1981-12-03 00:00:00 3000 20
7934 MILLER CLERK 7782 1982-01-23 00:00:00 1300 10

14 rows selected.

SQL> truncate table scott.EMP;

Table truncated.
SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup mount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 9.4067E+10 bytes
Fixed Size 2263936 bytes
Variable Size 9395242112 bytes
Database Buffers 8.4557E+10 bytes
Redo Buffers 112766976 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> flashback database to timestamp to_timestamp('2017-12-14 14:12:46','yyyy-mm-dd HH24:MI:SS');

Flashback complete.
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

Database altered.

SQL> select * from scott.emp;

EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO
---------- ---------- --------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
7369 SMITH CLERK 7902 1980-12-17 00:00:00 800 20
7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7698 1981-02-20 00:00:00 1600 300 30
7521 WARD SALESMAN 7698 1981-02-22 00:00:00 1250 500 30
7566 JONES MANAGER 7839 1981-04-02 00:00:00 2975 20
7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 1981-09-28 00:00:00 1250 1400 30
7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7839 1981-05-01 00:00:00 2850 30
7782 CLARK MANAGER 7839 1981-06-09 00:00:00 2450 10
7788 SCOTT ANALYST 7566 1987-04-19 00:00:00 3000 20
7839 KING PRESIDENT 1981-11-17 00:00:00 5000 10
7844 TURNER SALESMAN 7698 1981-09-08 00:00:00 1500 0 30
7876 ADAMS CLERK 7788 1987-05-23 00:00:00 1100 20
7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 1981-12-03 00:00:00 950 30
7902 FORD ANALYST 7566 1981-12-03 00:00:00 3000 20
7934 MILLER CLERK 7782 1982-01-23 00:00:00 1300 10

14 rows selected.
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b.快照闪回

 针对主库和备库都可以创建闪回快照点,然后恢复到指定的快照点,但主库一旦恢复到快照点,备库的同步则需要重新同步

复制代码
SQL> select * from scott.dept;

    DEPTNO DNAME          LOC           ADDR
---------- -------------- ------------- ------------------------------
        10 ACCOUNTING     NEW YORK
        20 RESEARCH       DALLAS
        30 SALES          CHICAGO
        
SQL> create restore point before_201712151111 guarantee flashback database;
Restore point created.

SQL> create table scott.t as select * from scott.dept;
Table created.

SQL> truncate table scott.t;
Table truncated.
SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup mount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 9.4067E+10 bytes
Fixed Size                  2263936 bytes
Variable Size            9663677568 bytes
Database Buffers         8.4289E+10 bytes
Redo Buffers              112766976 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> flashback database to restore point before_201712151111;
Flashback complete.
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;
Database altered.

此时主库scott.t已不存在:
SQL> select * from scott.t;
select * from scott.t
                    *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00942: table or view does not exist
此时从库的scott.依旧存在,主备同步终止
解决方案:在主库创建快照时间点,从库自动停止应用日志,等主库闪回后,重新应用日志即可。
如果已经做了上述操作,从库可以选择重建
ALTER DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE '/xx/xx/archive.dbf';
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 c.闪回snapshot standby

此功能在11GR2非常实用,可自动创建闪回点、开启闪回日志,可完成线上数据测试后,然后做数据库闪回恢复主备关系

复制代码
select scn, STORAGE_SIZE ,to_char(time,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss') time,NAME from v$restore_point;
select database_role,open_mode,db_unique_name,flashback_on from v$database;

SQL> set line 200;
SQL> set pagesize 2000;
SQL> select database_role,open_mode,db_unique_name,flashback_on from v$database;

DATABASE_ROLE    OPEN_MODE            DB_UNIQUE_NAME                 FLASHBACK_ON
---------------- -------------------- ------------------------------ ------------------
PHYSICAL STANDBY READ ONLY            testdbms                       NO


SQL> ALTER DATABASE CONVERT TO SNAPSHOT STANDBY;  

Database altered.

SQL> select database_role,open_mode,db_unique_name,flashback_on from v$database;

DATABASE_ROLE    OPEN_MODE            DB_UNIQUE_NAME                 FLASHBACK_ON
---------------- -------------------- ------------------------------ ------------------
SNAPSHOT STANDBY MOUNTED              testdbms                       RESTORE POINT ONLY

SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> select open_mode from v$database;

OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE


此时备库操作:
SQL> select * from scott.emp;

     EMPNO ENAME      JOB              MGR HIREDATE                   SAL       COMM     DEPTNO
---------- ---------- --------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
      7369 SMITH      CLERK           7902 1980-12-17 00:00:00        800                    20
      7499 ALLEN      SALESMAN        7698 1981-02-20 00:00:00       1600        300         30
      7521 WARD       SALESMAN        7698 1981-02-22 00:00:00       1250        500         30
      7566 JONES      MANAGER         7839 1981-04-02 00:00:00       2975                    20
      7654 MARTIN     SALESMAN        7698 1981-09-28 00:00:00       1250       1400         30
      7698 BLAKE      MANAGER         7839 1981-05-01 00:00:00       2850                    30
      7782 CLARK      MANAGER         7839 1981-06-09 00:00:00       2450                    10
      7788 SCOTT      ANALYST         7566 1987-04-19 00:00:00       3000                    20
      7839 KING       PRESIDENT            1981-11-17 00:00:00       5000                    10
      7844 TURNER     SALESMAN        7698 1981-09-08 00:00:00       1500          0         30
      7876 ADAMS      CLERK           7788 1987-05-23 00:00:00       1100                    20
      7900 JAMES      CLERK           7698 1981-12-03 00:00:00        950                    30
      7902 FORD       ANALYST         7566 1981-12-03 00:00:00       3000                    20
      7934 MILLER     CLERK           7782 1982-01-23 00:00:00       1300                    10

14 rows selected.

SQL> truncate table scott.emp;

Table truncated.

主库操作:
SQL> create table scott.t as select * from scott.dept;

Table created.

SQL> select * from scott.t;

    DEPTNO DNAME          LOC           ADDR
---------- -------------- ------------- ------------------------------
        10 ACCOUNTING     NEW YORK
        20 RESEARCH       DALLAS
        30 SALES          CHICAGO

备库恢复到物理standby
SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup mount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 9.4067E+10 bytes
Fixed Size                  2263936 bytes
Variable Size            9663677568 bytes
Database Buffers         8.4289E+10 bytes
Redo Buffers              112766976 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> ALTER DATABASE CONVERT TO PHYSICAL STANDBY; 

Database altered.
SQL> shutdown immediate;
ORA-01507: database not mounted


ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup ;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 9.4067E+10 bytes
Fixed Size                  2263936 bytes
Variable Size            9663677568 bytes
Database Buffers         8.4289E+10 bytes
Redo Buffers              112766976 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

##此时备库的数据已经恢复到转变snapshot standby时间点
SQL> select database_role,open_mode,db_unique_name,flashback_on from v$database;

DATABASE_ROLE    OPEN_MODE            DB_UNIQUE_NAME                 FLASHBACK_ON
---------------- -------------------- ------------------------------ ------------------
PHYSICAL STANDBY READ ONLY            testdbms                       NO

SQL>  select * from scott.emp;

     EMPNO ENAME      JOB              MGR HIREDATE                   SAL       COMM     DEPTNO
---------- ---------- --------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
      7369 SMITH      CLERK           7902 1980-12-17 00:00:00        800                    20
      7499 ALLEN      SALESMAN        7698 1981-02-20 00:00:00       1600        300         30
      7521 WARD       SALESMAN        7698 1981-02-22 00:00:00       1250        500         30
      7566 JONES      MANAGER         7839 1981-04-02 00:00:00       2975                    20
      7654 MARTIN     SALESMAN        7698 1981-09-28 00:00:00       1250       1400         30
      7698 BLAKE      MANAGER         7839 1981-05-01 00:00:00       2850                    30
      7782 CLARK      MANAGER         7839 1981-06-09 00:00:00       2450                    10
      7788 SCOTT      ANALYST         7566 1987-04-19 00:00:00       3000                    20
      7839 KING       PRESIDENT            1981-11-17 00:00:00       5000                    10
      7844 TURNER     SALESMAN        7698 1981-09-08 00:00:00       1500          0         30
      7876 ADAMS      CLERK           7788 1987-05-23 00:00:00       1100                    20
      7900 JAMES      CLERK           7698 1981-12-03 00:00:00        950                    30
      7902 FORD       ANALYST         7566 1981-12-03 00:00:00       3000                    20
      7934 MILLER     CLERK           7782 1982-01-23 00:00:00       1300                    10

14 rows selected.


SQL> alter database recover managed standby database using current logfile disconnect;

Database altered.

SQL> select * from scott.t;

    DEPTNO DNAME          LOC           ADDR
---------- -------------- ------------- ------------------------------
        10 ACCOUNTING     NEW YORK
        20 RESEARCH       DALLAS
        30 SALES          CHICAGO

        
SQL>  select database_role,open_mode,db_unique_name,flashback_on from v$database;

DATABASE_ROLE    OPEN_MODE            DB_UNIQUE_NAME                 FLASHBACK_ON
---------------- -------------------- ------------------------------ ------------------
PHYSICAL STANDBY READ ONLY WITH APPLY testdbms                       NO
        
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(5)闪回归档(增加、修改、重命名、删除表的列、truncate表、修改表的约束、以及修改分区表的分区规范)

 

3、闪回注意事项
(1)数据库闪回需要在mounted下进行,并且open时需要使用resetlogs
(2)闪回DROP只能用于非系统表空间和本地管理的表空间,外键约束无法恢复,对方覆盖、重命名需注意
(3)表DROP,对应的物化视图会被彻底删除,物化视图不会存放在recyclebin里
(4)闪回表,如果在做过dml,然后进行了表结构修改、truncate等DDL操作,新增/删除结构无法做闪回
(5)闪回归档,必须在assm管理tablespace和undo auto管理下进行
(6)注意闪回区管理,防止磁盘爆满,闪回区空间不足等

(7)主库做库的闪回,会影响备库,需要重新同步
(8)snapshot standby 不支持最高保护模式

三、备注
1、相关数据字典

V$FLASHBACK_DATABASE_LOG ##查看数据库可闪回的时间点/SCN等信息
V$flashback_database_stat ##查看闪回日志空间记录信息
2、常用查询语句
(1)查看数据库状态

SQL> select NAME,OPEN_MODE ,DATABASE_ROLE,CURRENT_SCN,FLASHBACK_ON from v$database;

NAME OPEN_MODE DATABASE_ROLE CURRENT_SCN FLASHBACK_ON
------------- -------------------- ---------------- ----------- ------------------
TESTDB READ WRITE PRIMARY 16812246 YES

(2)获取当前数据库的系统时间和SCN

 

SQL> select to_char(systimestamp,'yyyy-mm-dd HH24:MI:SS') as sysdt , dbms_flashback.get_system_change_number scn from dual;

SYSDT SCN
------------------- ----------
2017-12-14 14:28:33 16813234

(3)查看数据库可恢复的时间点

SQL> select * from V$FLASHBACK_DATABASE_LOG;

OLDEST_FLASHBACK_SCN OLDEST_FLASHBACK_TI RETENTION_TARGET FLASHBACK_SIZE ESTIMATED_FLASHBACK_SIZE
-------------------- ------------------- ---------------- -------------- ------------------------
16801523 2017-12-14 11:35:05 4320 104857600 244113408

(4)查看闪回日志空间情况

SQL> select * from V$flashback_database_stat;
BEGIN_TIME END_TIME FLASHBACK_DATA DB_DATA REDO_DATA ESTIMATED_FLASHBACK_SIZE
------------------- ------------------- -------------- ---------- ---------- ------------------------
2017-12-14 14:34:53 2017-12-14 14:56:43 1703936 9977856 1487872 0    

(5)SCN和timestamp装换关系查询

select scn,to_char(time_dp,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss')from sys.smon_scn_time;

(6)查看闪回restore_point

select scn, STORAGE_SIZE ,to_char(time,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss') time,NAME from v$restore_point;

(7)闪回语句

a.闪回数据库
  FLASHBACK DATABASE TO TIMESTAMP to_timestamp('2017-12-14 14:28:33','yyyy-mm-dd HH24:MI:SS');;
  flashback database to scn 16813234;
b.闪回DROP
其中table_name可以是删除表名称,也可以是别名
  flashback table table_name to before drop;
  flashback table table_name to before drop rename to table_name_new;
c.闪回表
  flashback table table_name to scn scn_number;
  flashback table table_name to timestamp to_timestamp('2017-12-14 14:28:33','yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss');
d.闪回查询
  select * from table_name as of timestamp to_timestamp('2017-12-14 14:28:33','yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss');
  select * from scott.dept as of scn 16801523;

e.闪回快照

  create restore point before_201712151111 guarantee flashback database;

  flashback database to restore point before_201712151111;



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